marmot \mar"mot\ (m[aum]r"m[o^]t; 277), n. [It. marmotta, marmotto, prob. fr. L. mus montanus, or mus montis, lit., mountain mouse or rat. See Mountain, and Mouse.]
(Zool.) Any rodent of the genus Marmota (formerly Arctomys) of the subfamily Sciurinae. The common European marmot (Marmota marmotta) is about the size of a rabbit, and inhabits the higher regions of the Alps and Pyrenees. The bobac is another European species. The common American species (Marmota monax) is the woodchuck (also called groundhog), but the name marmot is usually used only for the western variety. [1913 Webster +PJC]
Any one of several species of ground squirrels or gophers of the genus Spermophilus; also, the prairie dog. [1913 Webster] Marmot squirrel (Zool.), a ground squirrel or spermophile. Prairie marmot. See Prairie dog. [1913 Webster]
Woodchuck \Wood"chuck`\, n.
(Zool.) A common large North American marmot (Arctomys monax). It is usually reddish brown, more or less grizzled with gray. It makes extensive burrows, and is often injurious to growing crops. Called also ground hog. [1913 Webster]
(Zool.) The yaffle, or green woodpecker. [Prov. Eng.] [1913 Webster]
EtymologyBy alteration of Cree otchek or Ojibwe ojiig (fisher, marten), subsequently redefined as groundhog.
For other uses see groundhog (disambiguation) and woodchuck (disambiguation) The groundhog (Marmota monax), also known as the woodchuck or whistlepig, is a rodent of the family Sciuridae, belonging to the group of large ground squirrels known as marmots. Most marmots, such as yellow-bellied and hoary marmots, live in rocky and mountainous areas, but the woodchuck is a lowland creature. It is widely distributed in North America and common in the northeastern and central United States. In the west it is found only in Alaska, Alberta, British Columbia, northern Idaho and Washington.
Anatomy and behavior
The groundhog is the largest sciurid in its geographical range, typically measuring 40 to 65 cm (17 to 26 in) long (including a 15 cm tail) and weighing 2 to 4 kg (4.5 to 9 pounds). In areas with fewer natural predators and large quantities of alfalfa, groundhogs can grow to 80 cm (32 in) and 14 kg (30 lb). Groundhogs are well adapted for digging, with short but powerful limbs and curved, thick claws. Unlike other sciurids, the groundhog's spine is curved, more like that of a mole, and the tail is comparably shorter as well – only about one-fourth of body length. Suited to their temperate habitat, groundhogs are covered with two coats of fur: a dense grey undercoat and a longer coat of banded guard hairs that gives the groundhog its distinctive "frosted" appearance.
Groundhogs usually live from two to three years, but can live up to six years in the wild, and up to ten in captivity. Common predators for groundhogs include wolves, coyotes, bobcats, bears, large hawks, and owls. Young groundhogs are often at risk for predation by snakes, which easily enter the burrow.
Mostly herbivorous, groundhogs primarily eat wild grasses and other vegetation, and berries and agricultural crops when available. Groundhogs also eat grubs, grasshoppers, insects, snails and other small animals, but are not as omnivorous as many other sciurids.
Groundhogs are excellent burrowers, using burrows for sleeping, rearing young, and hibernating. The average groundhog has been estimated to move approximately 1 m³ (35 cubic feet), or 320 kg (700 pounds), of dirt when digging a burrow. Though groundhogs are the most solitary of the marmots, several individuals may occupy the same burrow. Groundhog burrows usually have two to five entrances, providing groundhogs their primary means of escape from predators. Burrows are particularly large, with up to 45 feet of tunnels buried up to 5 feet underground, and can pose a serious threat to agricultural and residential development by damaging farm machinery and even undermining building foundations.
Groundhogs are one of the few species that enter into true hibernation, and often build a separate "winter burrow" for this purpose. This burrow is usually in a wooded or brushy area and is dug below the frost line and remains at a stable temperature well above freezing during the winter months. In most areas, groundhogs hibernate from October to March or April, but in more temperate areas, they may hibernate as little as 3 months. To survive the winter, they are at their maximum weight shortly before entering hibernation. They emerge from hibernation with some remaining body fat to live on until the warmer spring weather produces abundant plant materials for food.
Despite their heavy-bodied appearance, groundhogs are accomplished swimmers and climbers, and climb trees to escape predators or survey their surroundings. They prefer to retreat to their burrows when threatened; if the burrow is invaded, the groundhog tenaciously defends itself with its two large incisors and front claws. Groundhogs are generally agonistic and territorial among their own species, and may skirmish to establish dominance.
Usually groundhogs breed in their second year, but a small proportion may breed in their first. The breeding season extends from early March to mid- or late April, after hibernation. A mated pair remains in the same den throughout the 28-32 day gestation period. As birth of the young approaches in April or May, the male leaves the den. One litter is produced annually, usually containing 2-6 blind, hairless and helpless young. Young groundhogs are weaned and ready to seek their own dens at five to six weeks of age.
The groundhog prefers open country and the edges of woodland, and it is rarely far from a burrow entrance. Since the clearing of forests provided it with much more suitable habitat, the groundhog population is probably higher now than it was before the arrival of European settlers in North America. Groundhogs are often hunted for sport, which tends to control their numbers. However, their ability to reproduce quickly has tended to mitigate the depopulating effects of sport hunting.
In the United States and Canada, the yearly Groundhog Day celebration has given the groundhog some added recognition and popularity, as has the movie of the same name.
In Disney's fictional universe, The Junior Woodchucks are the Boy Scouts of America-like child organization.
The etymology of the name woodchuck is unrelated to wood or chucking. It stems from an Algonquian name for the animal (possibly Narragansett), wuchak. The apparent relationship between the two words has led to the common tongue twister: "How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? — A woodchuck would chuck as much wood as he could if a woodchuck could chuck wood". Other response lines can be used, including:
- "As much wood as a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood."
- "A woodchuck would chuck as much wood as a woodchuck could chuck, if a woodchuck could chuck wood."
- "A woodchuck would chuck all the wood, if a woodchuck only could."
In the play and film, "How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying," the alma mater of Mr. Biggley is "Grand Old Ivy," whose mascot is the Groundhog. Biggley and Finch sing the college fight song, "Grand Old Ivy," which states the Groundhogs' main rival are the Chipmunks.
In advertisements for instant scratch-off tickets from the state lottery of Pennsylvania, an animatronic groundhog named Gus is featured, the self-proclaimed "second most-famous groundhog" in the state.
In Berkeley Breathed's popular comic strip Bloom County, there is a character named Portnoy who eventually is reavealed to be a groundhog, complete with scientific name Marmota Monax. This leads to a brief rejection from his friend Hodge-Podge the rabbit, saying "I don't work with pigs."
During the 2007 Canadian Grand Prix, a groundhog disrupted the practice session of Ralf Schumacher. On race day itself, Anthony Davidson had been running in third until he struck a groundhog, initially thought to be a beaver, which forced him to pit and repair the damage to his front wing. In the weeks leading up the Grand Prix, city officials trapped as many groundhogs as they could around the race course and transported the animals to nearby Ile Ste-Helene.
External linkscommons Marmota monax
woodchuck in Pennsylvania German: Grundsau
woodchuck in German: Waldmurmeltier
woodchuck in Estonian: Metsümiseja
woodchuck in Spanish: Marmota monax
woodchuck in French: Marmota Monax
woodchuck in Indonesian: Marmut tanah
woodchuck in Italian: Marmota monax
woodchuck in Lithuanian: Miškinis švilpikas
woodchuck in Hungarian: Erdei mormota
woodchuck in Dutch: Bosmarmot
woodchuck in Polish: Świszcz
woodchuck in Russian: Лесной сурок
woodchuck in Simple English: Groundhog
woodchuck in Finnish: Metsämurmeli
woodchuck in Swedish: Skogsmurmeldjur
woodchuck in Chinese: 美洲旱獺